Tag Archives: Vomiting

Hyperemesis Gravidum

video explains HG causes, symptoms, and treatment

What is hyperemesis gravidarum? 

— Hyperemesis gravidarum is a condition that causes frequent vomiting (throwing up) in pregnant women. It is like morning sickness, except the symptoms are much more severe.

Morning sickness is the nausea and vomiting that many women have during pregnancy. Even though it is called “morning” sickness, symptoms can happen any time of day.

What are the symptoms of hyperemesis gravidarum? 

— Women with hyperemesis gravidarum vomit every day, often many times a day. Women can lose weight and get dehydrated because they are vomiting so much.

Symptoms of dehydration include:

●Urinating less often than usual

●Having dark yellow urine

●Feeling dizzy when standing up

●Weight loss

Symptoms of hyperemesis gravidarum usually start during the first 2 to 3 months of pregnancy. Most women feel better by the middle of their pregnancy. But some women feel sick until late in the pregnancy.

How can I find out if I have hyperemesis gravidarum? 

— Your doctor or nurse should be able to tell if you have hyperemesis gravidarum by learning about your symptoms and doing an exam.

Are there tests I should have? 

— Maybe. Your doctor or nurse might do tests to see if the vomiting is hurting your body and to make sure another condition isn’t causing your symptoms. These tests can include:

●Blood tests

●Urine tests

●An ultrasound to check your baby

Is there anything I can do on my own to feel better? 

— Yes. To feel better, you can try the following:

●Eat as soon as you feel hungry, or even before you feel hungry.

●Snack often and eat small meals. The best foods to eat are high in protein or carbohydrates, and low in fat. These include crackers, bread, pretzels, nuts, and low-fat yogurt.

●Avoid foods that are spicy, greasy, or acidic (such as oranges).

●Drink cold, clear beverages, such as sports drinks and ginger ale. Avoid coffee. Also, try to drink between meals, rather than with a meal.

●Suck on popsicles or ginger-flavored lollipops.

●Brush your teeth right after you eat.

●Avoid lying down right after you eat.

●Take your vitamins at bedtime with a snack, not in the morning

●Avoid things in your environment that upset your stomach, such as stuffy rooms, strong smells, hot places, or loud noises.

●Have someone make your meals for you.

●Wear “acupressure” bands on your wrists. These are special bands that can help with morning or motion sickness.

Should I see a doctor or nurse? 

— If you are pregnant, see your doctor or nurse right away if you have any of the symptoms listed above.

How is hyperemesis gravidarum treated? 

— Treatment depends on how severe your symptoms are. If you are dehydrated or have lost a lot of weight, you will probably need to be treated in the hospital with:

●Fluids that go into your vein through a tube called an “IV”

●Medicines to help stop your nausea and vomiting

If this treatment doesn’t work, your doctor can feed you through a tube that goes in your nose and down into your stomach or through a vein.

Can hyperemesis gravidarum be prevented? 

— Doctors strongly recommend that all women who might get pregnant or who are pregnant take vitamins. The vitamin should contain at least 400 micrograms of folic acid. Taking vitamins before pregnancy and in early pregnancy might help prevent nausea and vomiting.

Will my baby be healthy? 

— Babies born to women with hyperemesis gravidarum for the entire pregnancy are a little more likely to be smaller than average. But otherwise, the condition doesn’t seem to cause problems. Taking medicines for nausea and vomiting during the pregnancy should not affect the baby either.

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Nausea and Vomiting

What are nausea and vomiting? 

— Nausea is the feeling you get when you think you might throw up. Vomiting is when you actually throw up. These 2 symptoms can happen together. But sometimes people feel nauseous without throwing up, and some people throw up without feeling nauseous first.

What causes nausea and vomiting? 

— The most common causes include:

Food poisoning – This can happen if you eat food that has gone bad. It is basically an infection in your stomach. Infections like these often also cause diarrhea. Other kinds of infections that affect the stomach or intestines can also cause nausea and vomiting.

Dizziness or motion sickness – This can happen if you’re on a boat or in a car, or something else that moves. It can also happen if there’s something wrong inside your ears that affects your balance.

Medicines – Lots of different medicines can cause nausea or vomiting. Some examples are antidepressants, antibiotics, vitamins, birth control pills, and pain medicines. People who are on chemotherapy for cancer treatment or who have been under anesthesia also often have nausea or vomiting.

Pregnancy – Many women who are pregnant have nausea or vomiting. People sometimes call this “morning sickness,” but it can happen at any time of day.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) – GERD is condition that causes the juices that are in the stomach to leak back up into the esophagus, the tube that connects the throat to the stomach. It can sometimes cause nausea.

Problems with the stomach or intestines – In some people, the stomach or intestines do not move food along the way that they are supposed to. In others, the intestines can get blocked. Both of these problems can cause nausea or vomiting.

Migraine headaches – Some people who get migraine headaches have nausea during their headaches.

Alcohol – Drinking too much alcohol can cause nausea and vomiting.

Should I see a doctor or nurse? 

— Call your doctor or nurse if your symptoms last longer than a day or 2, or you have severe symptoms. You should also call if you:

●Have chest or belly pain

●Throw up blood or something that looks like coffee grounds

●Have a bowel movement with blood, or a bowel movement that is black and looks like tar

●Have a fever higher than 101ºF

●Have a severe headache or stiff neck

●Feel very tired or have trouble getting up

●Show signs of dehydration (meaning that your body has lost too much water). Signs of dehydration include:

•Feeling very tired

•Being very thirsty or having a dry mouth or tongue

•Muscle cramps

•Dizziness

•Confusion

•Urine that is dark yellow, or not needing to urinate for more than 5 hours

What can I do on my own to feel better? — You can:

●Drink lots of fluids, if possible

●Try eating, but start with foods that have a lot of fluid in them. Good examples are soup, Jell-O, and popsicles. If you do OK with those foods, you can try soft, bland foods, such as plain yogurt. Foods that are high in carbohydrates (“carbs”), like bread or saltine crackers, can help settle your stomach. Some people also find that ginger helps with nausea. You should avoid foods that have a lot of fat in them. They can make nausea worse. Call your doctor if your symptoms come back when you try to eat.

●Avoid strong smells, such as the smell of perfume

●Take medicines with meals, if possible. But check the bottle first, because some medicines must be taken on an empty stomach.

How are nausea and vomiting treated? 

— If you have been vomiting a lot for more than a day, your doctor or nurse will ask you lots of questions to try to find out what might be causing your symptoms. He or she might also:

●Give you fluids through a thin tube that goes in a vein, called an “IV”

●Give you medicines that control nausea and vomiting. Some examples include:

Prochlorperazine (brand name: Compro)

Promethazine (brand name: Phenergan)

Metoclopramide (brand name: Reglan)

Ondansetron (brand name: Zofran)

●Schedule tests for you to help find out why you have nausea or vomiting, such as a stomach X-ray