Category Archives: GenitoUrinary

Peyronie’s Disease

Landon Trost, M.D., provides a general background of Peyronie’s disease. Topics include: common symptoms at presentation, how often the condition occurs, populations of men where this is more common, age of onset, average curvatures, typical directions of curvature, and associated psychological conditions.

Landon Trost, M.D., Assistant Professor of Urology and current Head of Andrology and Male Infertility, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota discusses Peyronies Disease therapies. He defines the therapeutic objectives and how curvature is often a primary end-point of therapy.


— Up to 7 percent of men can experience an abnormal curvature of their penis when it is erect. This is known as Peyronie’s disease. The most common cause of Peyronie’s disease is penile trauma that occurs during sexual intercourse. The penis develops a scar, and this scar then causes the penis to bend when it is erect. Significant penile curvatures can result in pain, poor erections, and an inability to engage in sexual intercourse. If the penis bends more than 60 degrees, couples usually are unable to have intercourse. Many men are extremely distressed by this curvature of their penis.


— There is currently only one US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment, known as collagenase (brand name: Xiaflex) injections. These injections are placed directly into the penile plaque, and they help remove the scar tissue. Studies have found that patients typically experience a 30 to 40 percent improvement in penile curvature after completing this type of therapy.

Anogenital Warts

What are anogenital warts?

 — Anogenital warts are small, skin-colored or pink growths that form on the vulva (the lips of the vagina), vagina, penis, or anus. They are caused by a virus called human papillomavirus, or “HPV.” You can catch this virus during sex. Anogenital warts are often called just “genital warts.”

Is HPV dangerous? 

— The type of HPV that causes most forms of genital warts is not usually dangerous. But other types of HPV can lead to cancer of the cervix (a part inside the woman’s body), penis, or anus.

Do warts hurt or itch?

 — Not usually. Most people with genital warts have no symptoms (other than the warts). But some people have itching, burning, or tenderness.

Is there a test for genital warts? 

— No, there is no test. But your doctor or nurse should be able to tell if you have warts just by doing an exam. He or she might also take small samples of tissue (biopsy) if it is not clear what you have. But that is not usually necessary.

How are genital warts treated? 

— There are several medicines that can help get rid of warts. Some work by slowly destroying the warts. Others work by getting your body’s own infection-fighting system to attack the warts.

Most medicines are lotions or gels that go on the warts. They have to be applied one or more times a week for many weeks. Some medicines must be applied by a doctor or nurse. Others you can apply yourself.

People who do not get better with medicines or who have a very big wart or a lot of warts can have them removed. This is also an option for people who have warts that could become cancer.

There are different treatments to remove warts:

●Cryotherapy, which uses a chemical to freeze warts

●Electrocautery, which uses electricity to burn away warts

●Traditional surgery, which involves cutting away warts

●Laser surgery, which uses light to destroy warts

●Ultrasound surgery, which uses sound waves to break up and remove warts (this is not available many places)

What if I am pregnant? 

— If you are pregnant, make sure to tell your doctor before you get treated for genital warts. Some of the treatments for genital warts are safe to use during pregnancy, but others are not.

What happens after treatment? 

— After you have been treated for warts, your doctor or nurse might ask you to check once in a while to see if they come back. If warts are going to come back, they will probably do so within a few months.

You should know that even if you cannot see any warts, you might still have HPV. That means that warts can come back at any time. If warts do come back, you could spread them to someone else.

Can genital warts be prevented? 

— Yes. There are now vaccines against HPV. They can help prevent infection with most of the forms of HPV that cause warts. But the vaccines can prevent infection only if you get vaccinated before you get warts.

You can also protect yourself by not having sex with anyone who is infected with HPV. But that is hard, because people do not always know that they have the virus. Condoms can help reduce the risk of infection. But they do not totally protect you. The virus can live on places on the skin not covered by a condom.

Herpes (Genital)

What is herpes? 

— Herpes is an infection that can cause blisters and open sores on the genital area. Herpes is caused by a virus that is passed from person to person during vaginal, oral, or anal sex. Sometimes, people do not know they have herpes because they do not have any symptoms.

Herpes cannot be cured. But the disease usually causes most problems during the first few years. After that, the virus is still there, but it causes few to no symptoms. Even when the virus is active, people with herpes can take medicines to reduce and help prevent symptoms.

What are the symptoms of herpes? 

— Some people with herpes never have any symptoms. But other people can develop symptoms within a few weeks of being infected with the herpes virus.

Symptoms usually include blisters in the genital area. In women, this area includes the vagina, butt, anus, or thighs. In men, this area includes the penis, scrotum, anus, butt, or thighs. The blisters can become painful open sores, which then crust over as they heal.

Sometimes, people can have other symptoms that include:

●Blisters on the mouth or lips

●Fever, headache, or pain in the joints

●Trouble urinating

In people with herpes, symptoms usually go away and come back. A return of symptoms is called an “outbreak.” Outbreaks usually include blisters and open sores in the genital area. In most people, the first outbreak is the worst and can last as long as 2 to 3 weeks. Outbreaks that happen later are usually not as severe and do not last as long.

Outbreaks might occur every month or more often, or just once or twice a year. Sometimes, people can tell when an outbreak will occur, because they feel itching or pain beforehand. Sometimes they do not know that an outbreak is coming because they have no symptoms. Whatever your pattern is, keep in mind that herpes outbreaks usually become less frequent over time as you get older.

Certain things, called “triggers,” can make outbreaks more likely to occur. These include stress, sunlight, menstrual periods, or getting sick.

Is there a test for herpes? 

— Yes. If you have blisters or ulcers when your doctor or nurse examines you, he or she can order a test to look for herpes. There are a few different tests that can do this. For all of them, the doctor or nurse takes a sample of cells or fluid from a sore and sends it to the lab. Sometimes they will also take a blood sample to find out if you have been exposed to the virus.

Should I see a doctor or nurse? 

— See your doctor or nurse the first time you have symptoms, or if your symptoms are severe.

How is herpes treated? 

— Your doctor can prescribe different medicines to help reduce symptoms and speed up the healing of an outbreak. These medicines work best when people start them soon after an outbreak starts. You and your doctor should work together to decide which medicine is right for you.

Is there anything I can do on my own to feel better? 

— Yes. To reduce the pain during an outbreak, you can:

●Use a portable bath (such as a “Sitz bath”) where you can sit in warm water for about 20 minutes. Your bathtub could also work. Avoid bubble baths.

●Keep the genital area clean and dry, and avoid tight clothes.

●Take over-the-counter pain medicine such as acetaminophen (brand name: Tylenol) or ibuprofen (sample brand names: Advil, Motrin). But avoid aspirin.

You should also let your doctor or nurse know if you are worried or upset about your herpes. He or she can talk with you about your feelings. Plus, you might want to join a support group for people with herpes. You can also call the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) STD hotline at 1-800-227-8922 for help.

What if I am pregnant? 

— If you are pregnant, talk with your doctor. It is possible for a baby to get herpes from its mother during birth, especially if the mother’s first outbreak starts near the time of delivery. Talk with your doctor or nurse about things you can do to help prevent this.

Can future outbreaks of symptoms be prevented? 

— Some people with herpes take a medicine every day to help prevent future outbreaks.

What can I do to prevent spreading herpes to my sex partner? 

People are most likely to spread herpes to a sex partner when they have blisters and open sores on their body. But people can also spread herpes to their sex partner when they do not have any symptoms. That is because herpes can be present on the body without causing any symptoms, like blisters or pain. You can decrease the risk of spreading herpes to your partner by taking an antiviral medicine every day.

You can also reduce the chance of your sex partner getting herpes by:

●Telling your sex partner that you have herpes

●Using a condom every time you have sex

●Not having sex when you have symptoms

●Not having oral sex if you have blisters or open sores (in the genital area or around your mouth)

Chlamydia and Gonorrhea

What are chlamydia and gonorrhea? 

— Chlamydia and gonorrhea are 2 different infections that you can catch during sex. They cause similar symptoms.

These infections can affect the:

●Sex organs

●Urethra (the tube that carries urine out of the body)


●Rectum or anus (especially in men who have sex with men)

Infections that you can catch during sex are called “sexually transmitted infections.

What are the symptoms of chlamydia and gonorrhea? — Often these infections cause no symptoms. But when they do, the symptoms are different for men than for women.

●In women, the symptoms of both infections include:

•Vaginal discharge or itching

•Abnormal vaginal bleeding or spotting

•Belly pain

•Pain during sex

•Burning or pain during urination

●In men, the symptoms of both infections include:

•Burning or pain during urination

•Discharge from the penis

•Pain, swelling, or tenderness of the testicles

In men who have sex with men, both infections can also cause rectal pain, discharge, and bleeding.

Are there tests for chlamydia and gonorrhea? 

— Yes. Your doctor or nurse can test you for these infections using a:

●Urine sample

●Sample from inside the vagina, if you are a woman

Your doctor or nurse might also take a sample from your throat or rectum, if those areas might be infected.

Should I see a doctor or nurse? 

— Yes, you should see a doctor or nurse if you have any of the symptoms listed above. You should also see a doctor or nurse if any of your sexual partners have been diagnosed with either infection. Even if you have no symptoms, you could be infected.

Your doctor might want to test you for sexually transmitted infections now and in the future.

How are chlamydia and gonorrhea treated? 

— The main treatment for both infections is antibiotics. The antibiotics for gonorrhea come in a single shot and a pill. The antibiotic for chlamydia comes in a pill. Treatment might involve taking a single pill, or it might involve taking medicine for a whole week. No matter what, make sure you take all the pills your doctor or nurse prescribes. Otherwise the infection might come back.

If you have chlamydia or gonorrhea, you should tell the person you last had sex with, and anyone you have had sex with in the past 2 to 3 months. They might also be infected (even if they have no symptoms) and need treatment.

Many people with chlamydia or gonorrhea get the infection again after treatment. After getting treated, you should get tested again a few months later, even if you have no symptoms.

What happens if I don’t get treated? 

— Leaving chlamydia or gonorrhea untreated can cause long-term problems for both men and women. In women it can lead to a problem called “pelvic inflammatory disease,” or “PID.” PID can cause pain and make it hard to get pregnant later. In men and women, leaving gonorrhea untreated can lead to joint infections and arthritis. It can also increase the risk of becoming infected with HIV.

What if I want to get pregnant? 

— If you think you might have chlamydia or gonorrhea, it’s important to get tested and treated before trying to get pregnant. If you don’t get treatment, the infection can cause problems with the pregnancy. You could also pass the infection on to your baby during delivery. Babies who get infected often have a problem called “conjunctivitis,” which is when their eyes are swollen and red and ooze liquid. They can have other problems, too.

In the United States, most newborn babies get antibiotic ointment put into their eyes soon after birth. This helps prevent infection with gonorrhea, but not chlamydia.

Can chlamydia and gonorrhea prevented? — You can reduce your chances of getting chlamydia or gonorrhea by:

●Using a latex condom every time you have sex

●Avoiding sex when you or your partner has any symptoms that could be caused by an infection (such as itching, discharge, or pain with urination)

●Not having sex

Dyspareunia (painful sex)

What is dyspareunia? 

Dyspareunia is pain that happens just before, during, or after sex. It can happen in men and women, but is more common in women.

Women can have pain at the vulva, the area around the opening of the vagina. Or the pain can be inside the vagina or in the lower belly (figure 1). Men can have pain in the penis, testicles, belly, and sometimes the rectum.

What causes dyspareunia? 

— There are many possible causes.

In women, common causes include:

●Childbirth – Sex can be painful for several weeks or months after giving birth.

●Endometriosis – In this condition, tissue that normally grows inside a woman’s uterus grows outside it. This can cause pain in the belly during sex.

●Vaginal dryness – This can be caused by:

•Menopause – This is the time in a woman’s life when she stops having periods. The vagina and tissues around it can get dry and thin at menopause. This can make sex hurt.

•Not being aroused or “excited” before sex

●Conditions that cause long-lasting pain in the vulva, bladder, or pelvis – These can include:

•A condition called “vulvodynia” – This is pain in the vulva.

•A condition called “interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome” – This condition causes bladder pain and other symptoms.

•A condition called “chronic pelvic pain” – This is pain in the area below the belly button that lasts 6 months or longer.

●An infection in the vagina or bladder

●Skin problems around the vagina

●Bad feelings about a partner or relationship – Feeling bad about your partner or about yourself can make sex painful.

●A painful experience in the past – This could be a past experience of sex or a medical exam that hurt. It could even be pain from using a tampon.

●Birth control pills – Some women who take birth control pills start having pain during sex.

In men, common causes include:

●Infections – These can include:

•An infection in the prostate – The prostate is a gland that makes some of the fluid men release during sex. Infections in other parts of the body can also make sex hurt.

•Infection with a disease spread through sex, such as gonorrhea.

●Skin problems

●Bad feelings about a partner or relationship – Feeling bad about a partner or about yourself can make sex painful.

Should I see a doctor or nurse? 

— Yes. If sex is painful, see your doctor or nurse. Some people feel embarrassed bringing this up, but this is something your doctor or nurse can help you with.

Will I need tests? 

— Your doctor or nurse will decide which tests you should have based on your age, other symptoms, and individual situation. He or she will do an exam and ask you about your symptoms.

Here are some common tests doctors use to find the cause of dyspareunia:

●Urine tests – These can look for a bladder infection.

●If you are a woman, tests on a sample of fluid from your vagina – These can look for an infection in the vagina.

How is dyspareunia treated? 

— Treatments for women include:

●Antibiotics or antifungal medicines – These can help if the pain is caused by an infection in the vagina or bladder.

●Creams or gels to keep the vagina moist – These include:

•Vaginal lubricants, which are used during sex

•Vaginal moisturizers, which are used several times a week

•A prescription cream to treat vaginal dryness (usually estrogen) or a skin condition

●A medicine called ospemifene (brand name: Osphena), which comes in a pill. This is similar to estrogen, but is not estrogen. It is used only in women who have been through menopause. Some women prefer to use this instead of vaginal estrogen because they prefer not to use a vaginal medicine or find it hard to use a vaginal medicine.

●Gels or ointments to numb the vagina before and after sex.

●Physical therapy to loosen the muscles around the vagina.

●Counseling – This can help if pain is caused by bad feelings about sex, a relationship, or yourself.

●Surgery – A few women have pain that is caused by a growth inside the body. Doctors might do surgery to take out the growth.

Treatments for men include:

●Medicines to treat infection or other conditions that cause pain – These can include antibiotics and other medicines.

●Treatment for skin problems

●Counseling – This can help if pain could be caused by feeling bad about sex, a relationship, or yourself.

UTI in pregnancy

What are urinary tract infections? 

— Urinary tract infections, also called “UTIs,” are infections in the urinary tract. The urinary tract is the group of organs in the body that handle urine. It includes the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra.

UTIs can affect either the bladder or the kidneys:

●Bladder infections are more common than kidney infections. They happen when bacteria get into the urethra and travel up into the bladder. The medical term for bladder infection is “cystitis.”

●Kidney infections happen when the bacteria travel even higher, up into the kidneys. The medical term for kidney infection is “pyelonephritis.”

UTIs are common during pregnancy. When a pregnant woman gets a bladder infection, it is more likely to lead to a kidney infection. This might be because the ureters (the tubes between the bladder and kidneys) get wider during pregnancy. This makes it easier for bacteria to travel farther.

What is asymptomatic bacteriuria? 

— This is the medical term for when there is more bacteria than normal in a person’s urine, but the person does not have symptoms of infection. In pregnant women, doctors check or “screen” for this as part of routine testing. This involves a simple urine test and is usually done near the end of the first trimester.

What are the symptoms of a UTI?

 — Symptoms depend on which part of the urinary tract is affected.

If you have a bladder infection, symptoms can include:

●Pain or a burning feeling when you urinate

●The need to urinate often

●The need to urinate suddenly or in a hurry

●Blood in the urine

If you have a kidney infection, you might have the above symptoms, too. But kidney infections can also cause:


●Back pain

●Nausea or vomiting

Kidney infections during pregnancy can sometimes lead to more serious problems. These can include sepsis (when an infection travels through the whole body) and breathing problems. If you are pregnant and have symptoms of a bladder or kidney infection, tell your doctor or nurse.

How are UTIs during pregnancy treated? 

— UTIs are treated with antibiotics whether or not you are pregnant. Antibiotics work by killing the bacteria that cause the infection.

●If you have a bladder infection, you will probably need to take antibiotic pills. Most are taken for 3 to 7 days, but the exact schedule depends on which antibiotic you get. Your doctor will prescribe one that is safe to take during pregnancy. It’s important to take all your antibiotic pills, even if your symptoms start to improve. After you are done taking the antibiotics, your doctor might test your urine to make sure the bacteria are gone.

●If you have a kidney infection, you will probably need treatment in the hospital. This involves getting antibiotics through a thin tube that goes into a vein, called an “IV.” After your symptoms have improved, you will be able to go home from the hospital and switch to antibiotic pills. You doctor might have you continue to take antibiotics for the rest of your pregnancy. This is to prevent the infection from coming back.

How is asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy treated? 

— If you are pregnant and your screening test shows bacteria in your urine, your doctor will probably give you antibiotics.

In most cases, people with asymptomatic bacteriuria who are not pregnant do not need treatment. But doctors do recommend antibiotics for pregnant women. That’s because without treatment, asymptomatic bacteriuria can raise the risk of problems with your pregnancy. Treating it with antibiotics also lowers the chances that it will lead to a UTI.

The antibiotic options for asymptomatic bacteriuria are the same as those used to treat bladder infections.

Will my baby be healthy?

 — If you get treatment, chances are very good that your baby will be healthy.

There is a small risk of certain problems if you have bacteria in your urine during pregnancy. These include preterm labor, which is when labor starts before 37 weeks of pregnancy, or having a baby that weighs less than it should. Babies who are born preterm or underweight can have health problems.

Kidney infection during pregnancy also increases these risks. This is why it’s important to get treatment if you have asymptomatic bacteriuria or a UTI during pregnancy.

Can UTIs in pregnancy be prevented? 

— Sometimes. If you often get UTIs, especially if they tend to happen after sex, your doctor might prescribe you antibiotics during pregnancy. Taking 1 dose of your antibiotic after sex might help prevent getting a UTI. Your doctor or nurse can talk to you about whether this is something you should do.

Drinking plenty of fluids can also help prevent UTIs. This is true whether or not you are pregnant.


What is balanitis? 

— Balanitis is the medical term for when the head of the penis (in a man) or the clitoris (in a woman) is swollen, sore, or inflamed. This condition most often affects men and boys, so this article will focus only on them.

What are the symptoms of balanitis? 

— The symptoms often get worse over 3 to 7 days and can include:

●Pain, tenderness, or itching on the head of the penis (also called the “glans”)

●Red sores on the head of the penis or the skin around the head of the penis (also called the foreskin or “prepuce”)

●Thick, bad-smelling pus on the head of the penis

If these symptoms are not treated in a man or boy who is not circumcised, the penis can swell and the foreskin can get stuck to the head of the penis or just below the head of the penis. The foreskin can also form scars.

In some cases, balanitis can make it hard to urinate.

Should I see a doctor or nurse? 

— Yes. If you have the symptoms described above, see your doctor or nurse right away. Go to the emergency room if you are not circumcised and your foreskin is stuck just below the head of your penis and won’t move. This could cause permanent damage.

Will I need tests? 

— Probably. Your doctor or nurse will need to find out what might be causing your balanitis. To do that, he or she will probably:

●Take samples of the fluid from your penis to check for infection

●Order blood tests to check for diabetes or infection

How is balanitis treated? 

— Treatment varies depending on the cause of the balanitis:

●If your balanitis is caused by a yeast infection, you will be treated with medicines called “antifungals.” These medicines come as a cream or gel that you put on your penis, or as pills you take by mouth. Yeast infections most often affect men with diabetes.

●If your balanitis happened because you did not clean your penis well, you will have to rinse your penis twice a day. After your symptoms get better, you will need to begin cleaning yourself better with mild soap and water every day. (But don’t use soap while you still have symptoms. Soap can make symptoms worse.)

●If your balanitis is caused by infection with bacteria you will be treated with antibiotic pills. Infections that can cause balanitis include infections you can catch during sex.

●If your balanitis is caused by an allergy or skin reaction to soaps, medicines, or chemicals, you will be treated with steroid creams or ointments. These steroids reduce inflammation and help the skin heal.

●In rare cases, balanitis is a symptom of cancer or a sign that cancer might soon develop. If your balanitis is related to cancer, you will get treated with surgery or cancer medicines.

Treatment of balanitis in boys is very similar to treatment in men. But boys sometimes need special treatments to help them urinate. Boys also sometimes get antibiotic creams or ointments to put on the penis.

Can balanitis be prevented? 

— Yes. You can reduce your chances of getting balanitis by keeping your penis clean. This is especially important if you are not circumcised. After your symptoms are cured, wash your penis every day with soap and water. If you are not circumcised, be sure to pull back the foreskin to clean under it. Then dry the skin there before you put the foreskin back.

Keeping your penis clean is important, but it is also possible to go too far. Clean the area gently, with water that is not too hot. Use mild soap, but be careful not to scrub the area too roughly.

Dr. Carlo Oller
Board Certified Emergency Physician

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Urinary Tract Infection – UTI

What is the urinary tract? 

— The urinary tract is the group of organs in the body that handle urine. The urinary tract includes the:

Kidneys, 2 bean-shaped organs that filter the blood to make urine

Bladder, a balloon-shaped organ that stores urine

Ureters, 2 tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder

Urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body

What are urinary tract infections? 

— Urinary tract infections, also called “UTIs,” are infections that affect either the bladder or the kidneys:

Bladder infections are more common than kidney infections. They happen when bacteria get into the urethra and travel up into the bladder. The medical term for bladder infection is “cystitis.”

Kidney infections happen when the bacteria travel even higher, up into the kidneys. The medical term for kidney infection is “pyelonephritis.”

Both bladder and kidney infections are more common in women than men.

What are the symptoms of a bladder infection? 

— The symptoms include:

Pain or a burning feeling when you urinate

The need to urinate often

The need to urinate suddenly or in a hurry

Blood in the urine

What are the symptoms of a kidney infection?

The symptoms of a kidney infection can include the symptoms of a bladder infection, but kidney infections can also cause:


Back pain

Nausea or vomiting

How do I find out if I have a urinary tract infection? 

— Call your doctor or nurse. Sometimes, he or she can tell if you have a urinary tract infection just by learning about your symptoms.

Your doctor or nurse might do a simple urine test. If he or she thinks you might have a kidney infection or is unsure what you have, he or she might also do a more involved urine test to check for bacteria.

How are urinary tract infections treated? 

— Most urinary tract infections are treated with antibiotic pills. These pills work by killing the germs that cause the infection.

If you have a bladder infection, you will probably need to take antibiotics for 3 to 7 days. If you have a kidney infection, you will probably need to take antibiotics for longer – maybe for up to 2 weeks. If you have a kidney infection, it’s also possible you will need to be treated in the hospital. Your symptoms should begin to improve within a day of starting antibiotics. But you should finish all the antibiotic pills you get. Otherwise your infection might come back. If needed, you can also take a medicine to numb your bladder. This medicine eases the pain caused by urinary tract infections. It also reduces the need to urinate.

What if I get bladder infections a lot? 

— First, check with your doctor or nurse to make sure that you are really having bladder infections. The symptoms of bladder infection can be caused by other things. Your doctor or nurse will want to see if those problems might be causing your symptoms.

But if you are really dealing with repeated infections, there are things you can do to keep from getting more infections. These include:

Avoiding spermicides (sperm-killing creams) – Spermicide is a form of birth control. It seems to increase the risk of bladder infections in some women, especially when used with a diaphragm. If you use spermicide and get a lot of bladder infections, you might want to try switching to a different form of birth control.

Drinking more fluid – This can help prevent bladder infections.

Urinating right after sex – Some doctors think this helps, because it helps flush out germs that might get into the bladder during sex. There is no proof it works, but it also cannot hurt.

Vaginal estrogen – If you are a woman who has already been through menopause, your doctor might suggest this. Vaginal estrogen comes in a cream or a flexible ring that you put into your vagina. It can help prevent bladder infections.

Antibiotics – If you get a lot of bladder infections, and the above methods have not helped, your doctor might give you antibiotics to help prevent infection. But taking antibiotics has downsides, so doctors usually suggest trying other things first.

Can cranberry juice or other cranberry products prevent bladder infections? 

— The studies suggesting that cranberry products prevent bladder infections are not very good. Other studies suggest that cranberry products do not prevent bladder infections. But if you want to try cranberry products for this purpose, there is probably not much harm in doing so.

Dr. Carlo Oller Board Certified Emergency Physician Please visit my website, make sure you subscribe, comment, and share! That is the best way to show your support.

Bladder Stones

Bladder stones are small masses of minerals that precipitate in your bladder. These develop with urine in your bladder becomes very concentrated causing minerals in the fluid to crystalize. Concentrated stagnant urine is usually the result of not being able to completely empty your bladder. Dr. Carlo Oller, emergency physician, talks about bladder stones. Dr. Carlo Oller Board Certified Emergency Physician Please visit my website, make sure you subscribe, comment, and share! That is the best way to show your support.